Viaje a las profundidades del Océano (VIDEO) + Extrañas criaturas marinas (FOTOS)

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  Pero, ¿qué es un Océano? U n océano es una enorme masa de agua salada que representa un importante ecosistema para el equilibrio ecológico de la Tierra y que constituye el  71% de la superficie terrestre , gracias a los 360,132,000 km² de su extensión. Y,  ¿cuántos océanos existen? Lo que cubre gran parte de la superficie de la Tierra, es en sí, un solo océano. Es decir, una sola masa de agua. Para un mejor estudio, el hombre dividió esta enorme masa en 5 partes de acuerdo a su ubicación geográfica. Por ello, la expresión “los océanos”, es correcta. Importancia de los océanos *Absorben entre un 25 y 30% del dióxido de carbono emitido a la atmósfera, por lo que Equilibran el clima de toda la Tierra. *Representan numerosos ecosistemas para diversas formas de vida animal, vegetal, bacteriana, protista y fúngica. *Son hogar para miles de especies, conocidas y aún desconocidas. Existen aproximadamente 250,000 especies conocidas, pero se cree que puedan haber 750,000 más. *Proveen fuentes

14-Jun-12 - Sudden Aggression in Dogs Often a Sign of Pain (Agresión repentina en Perros un Signo de Dolor)

Irritability from pain can make otherwise affectionate dogs violent and already aggressive dogs even more aggressive.

Irritability from pain can make otherwise affectionate dogs violent and already aggressive dogs even more aggressive.

dogs fighting
The pain produced by hip dysplasia is a key factor in the risk of large dogs becoming aggressive.Alex E. Proimos
THE GIST
Dog owners should watch for sudden changes in their dogs' temperament.
Often sudden, more aggressive behavior is linked to pain.
Sudden changes in a dog's temperament, for example episodes of aggression, could be related to some internal pain they are feeling, which sets them on edge if they are touched, new research indicates.

"If the pet is handled when in pain, it will quickly act aggressively to avoid more discomfort without the owner being able to prevent it," study researcher Tomàs Camps, of the Autonomous University of Barcelona, in Spain, said in a statement. "Dogs that had never been aggressive before the onset of pain began to behave in this way in situations where an attempt is made to control them."

Irritability from pain can make otherwise affectionate dogs violent and already aggressive dogs even more aggressive. As such, the researchers say, their findings support the importance of the diagnosis and treatment of pain in dogs.
Several factors can explain a barking, aggressive dog: The conditions of the mother during gestation, the handling of the puppy in the neonatal phase, the age at weaning, the experiences of the animal during the socializing phase, diet, exercise, genetics and learning techniques based on active punishment during adulthood.

Focusing only on sudden increases in aggression, the researchers studied 12 dogs (Giant schnauzer, Irish setter, Pit-bull, Dalmatian, two German shepherds, Neapolitan Mastiff, Shih-tzu, Bobtail, Catalan Sheepdog, Chow-chow and Doberman) that were brought to the university's veterinary hospital by their owners in 2010 and 2011.

Scientists asked dog owners the who, what, where and when of the attacks on their owners: They identified the most frequent circumstances in which dogs were aggressive, the most characteristic positions, the most frequent target of attacks (usually the owners) and if there were warning signals before an imminent attack.

Pained pups
"All (eleven males and one female) were diagnosed as having aggression caused by pain. Out of the 12 studied, eight had suffered a hip dysplasia," Camps said. Hip dysplasia is a painful condition common in larger dogs, in which abnormal formation of the hip socket can cause crippling lameness and painful arthritis of the joints.
Canine hip dysplasia is hereditary and affects more than 40 percent of Golden retrievers, Labradors and Rottweilers. The problem begins slowly, so it's important to catch it early. Random aggressive episodes brought on by pain could help vets diagnose the disease.

The study was published February 23 in the Journal of Veterinary Behavior -- Clinical Applications and Research.
Source: discovery.com

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