Viaje a las profundidades del Océano (VIDEO) + Extrañas criaturas marinas (FOTOS)

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  Pero, ¿qué es un Océano? U n océano es una enorme masa de agua salada que representa un importante ecosistema para el equilibrio ecológico de la Tierra y que constituye el  71% de la superficie terrestre , gracias a los 360,132,000 km² de su extensión. Y,  ¿cuántos océanos existen? Lo que cubre gran parte de la superficie de la Tierra, es en sí, un solo océano. Es decir, una sola masa de agua. Para un mejor estudio, el hombre dividió esta enorme masa en 5 partes de acuerdo a su ubicación geográfica. Por ello, la expresión “los océanos”, es correcta. Importancia de los océanos *Absorben entre un 25 y 30% del dióxido de carbono emitido a la atmósfera, por lo que Equilibran el clima de toda la Tierra. *Representan numerosos ecosistemas para diversas formas de vida animal, vegetal, bacteriana, protista y fúngica. *Son hogar para miles de especies, conocidas y aún desconocidas. Existen aproximadamente 250,000 especies conocidas, pero se cree que puedan haber 750,000 más. *Proveen fuentes

A review of the Human-horse Relationship

Despite a long history of human-horse relationship, horse-related incidents and accidents do occur amongst professional and non professional horse handlers.

Recent studies show that their occurrence depend more on the frequency and amount of interactions with horses than on the level of competency, suggesting a strong need for specific research and training of individuals working with horses.

Studies show that deficits in the management conditions (housing, feeding, possibilities for social contact, and training methods) may lead to relational problems between horses and humans.

Different methods have been used to assess and improve the human-horse relation, especially at the young age. They reveal that the time and type of contact all play a role, while recent studies suggest that the use of familiarized social models might be a great help through social facilitation.

A better knowledge of learning rules is certainly necessary in this context not only to train the horse but also to counterbalance the unavoidable negative inputs that exist in routine procedures and reduce their impact on the relationship.

It appears clearly that research is needed in order to assess how to better and safely approach the horse (e.g. research in position, posture, gaze, etc.), what type of approaches and timing may help in developing a positive bond, what influence human management and care have on the relationship, and how this can be adapted to have a positive influence on the relationship. Also the interaction between rider and horse, the search for the optimal match between two individuals, is an aspect of the horse-human relationship that requires attention in order to decrease the number of horse-riding accidents and reduced states of welfare.

On the other hand, adequate knowledge is readily available that may improve the present situation rapidly. Developing awareness and attention to behavioural cues given by horses would certainly help decreasing accidents among professionals when interacting.

Scientists therefore should play a major role in transmitting not only elements of the current knowledge of the ethology of the horse but also by helping developing observational skills.
Source: Scopus.com

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